Numéro 107 Décembre 2012La ville en thèses
The demolition of social housing is today presented as a legal and legitimate line of action with regard to the management of a public social housing pool inherited from the planning and development Policy of the trente Glorieuses (the "Glorious Thirty years of France’s post-WW2 boom) and with regard to the urban management of estates resulting from France’s Politique de la ville ("Urban Policy"). This work, the result of thesis defended in 2004, retraces the history surrouding the long periode of resistance (1975-2001) of the part of the French State to transfer the arbitration of decisions relating to the public property with a social vocation to local public bodies.
With a spatialized hedonic price method, on land market of a French administrative subdivision, we studies the urban sprawl, to understand influences disturbing open spaces (natural and agricultural). We wanted word by using a scale about the vicinity. We tested the inegration of geomatic and landscape ecology tools to a new urban economy micro-economic model, in order to taking into account spatial heteogeneities. In the second time, we proposed a modeling of landowners’ anticipations and demande preferences. Our princiapl result are of four orders. 1/ We show that change anticipations of land use rules undervalue the public planning effects ; 2/ The wildfire hazard not influence the residential localization ; 3/ The landscape ecology tools make it possible to integrate the spatial structure of the vicinity into an real estate valuation economic model ; 4/ The public services accessibility and the type of social neighborhood segregate the real estate purchase.
In Great Britain, the deciders have organized their actions in justifying them with a discourse about "ethnic ghettos". Our work take the reverse of this attitude. We observe that the ethnic minorities have a strong residential mobility even in the desindustrialized cities. This fact contributes to the decrease of the segregation. The public policy in housing for instance takes in charge the "need" of these minorities.
By using the Amartya Sen theoretical approach, ouor PHD proposes an evaluation methode of the social dimension of transport policies, in terms of equal opportunity of access to urban activities. We build a tool within the issue : "accessibility for who, to what and how ?"
The application to the Lyon metropolitan area is a rich lesson learnt on the car equalizing power, on the wideing inequalities between territories, and on the impact of changes in the urban activities location. Our work draws a society "norm" in terms of automibility and tries to analyse some levers to integrate excluded population in the "norm".
Conceived in a political system where the seizure of the State on the production was if not complete at least very vast, the general plan of reconstruction of Moscow of 1935 was realized in studios of planning of State and leaned on unique estate conditions : the absence of the private property. Did thse exceptional frames and conditions make more simple the realization of this urban planning project? More faithful the passage from the project to the object? Did thy lead to emergence of a specific urban shape?
Without questioning the exceptional character of this frame of production, this thesis shows that this urban planning project also results from a negotiation between the political actofs and the architects and composes with the materiality and the manners of the existing city.
The usual urbanism struggles to understand of urbanization that are majority today : "in-between" territories, neither urban nor rural. And the urban history only considers them as a final stage in the sprawl process. Based on a critical analysis of common concepts (from "rurban" to "città diffusa"), and through the production of an original cartography, this research looks at one of the most representatives of them, the belgian Brabant. It focuses on an important period of urbanisation that was rarely studied, because it was non-planned. It contributes thhus to a broader history, that of the urbanisation processes, and proposes some new tools to deal with territories inhabited without density.
Hearing impairments are still quite unknown by the professionels and stakeholders who are in charge or urban acessibility. Yet, these impairments may at least concern between 7 and 10% of the French population, and this figure may increase given the ageing of the population. Exploratory field studies, using semi-structured interviews, commented trips and a questionnaire allow us to understand the disabling situations encountered by deaf and hard of hearing peeple in the urban environment, both sensitive and social. The commented trips also aim at exploring their potential specific perception of the urban ambient environment.
Automobility - as trips and lifestyles - is currently inconsistent with environmental issues, implying to bring car trips under control. Many alternative means of transport are though emerging to substitute for cars. Working on alternatives to individual car travel - or altermobilities - is a way to question travel behaviours and automobile norme. In this way, this work suggests a model to understand of learning altermobilities and call iinto question the eventual rise of a new mobility norm.
Local authorities and outer commercials - Basis, méthodology and results of a PhD in public law. Our thesis is based on a well known fact, which is that the law for external commercials accumulates a series of paradoxes, especially when it cornes to a "local authority" approach.
While public opinion es getting more and more sensitive to environmental protection, this imperative finds it difficult to assert itself. Wrintings make it possible to create local rules for commercials and give a large variety of repressive measures, but none of these possibilities is convincing. Unable to meet the requirements of environmental protection, the positive law doesn’t make it possible for local authorities to have an effective economical use either.
This article is the outline of a PhD dissertation that dealt with young Saudi women’s access to public spaces in Riyadh. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this research shows how young Saudi women, whoses mobility and activities are limited by multiple constraints, invent mobile lifestyles through their access to four types of spaces : a women-only university campus, workplaces, shopping malls dans religious spaces. The combination on gender and public spaces is the thread of the demonstration. The first part describes the emergence of public spaces accessible to women in the capital, form gender segregation to "reform". The second part shows who, among Saudi women, has access to these spaces and how this access is negotiated. The third part analyses transforming social hierarchies and gender norms in these new spaces. This work finally explores the political and social implications of the increasing visibility, in the city, of professional and consumerist lifestyles that are adopted by Saudi women.
This thesis’ purpose was to explore the relations between the physical charactéristics of the environment and the socio-economic characteristics of the individuals and the territories on the scale of the Paris metropolitan area. Two multi-criteria typologies were carried out on the scale of the 1300 cities belonging to the Paris metropolitan area, based on usua statisticial indicators - both social and environmental. The crossing of these typologies confirmed the existence of an overall match between the environmental and social characteristics of the cities. An empirical research in form of questionnaires (600 people) completed this first approach. The survey, focusing of the personal environmental experience of the inhabitants, investigates the determinants of environmental satisfaction. Among the examined variables, two majors explanatory registers appeared : (i) the residential anchorage and the emotional relation taking place in the living space ; (ii) the trust individuals grant to means of collective action to convey their environmental expectations. Therefore, the analysis unveiled that environmental satisfaction would be less directly related to neither sole socio-economic variables or "objective" environmentaldata than to the individuals’ differentiated capacities and aptitudes to control their environment and act upon it. Hence, the information collected on site drivent by the population’s feeling questions the empirical measurement of environmental inequalities as well as the framework of analysis for such inequal situations, at this stage still an ongoing discussion.