numéro 100 juin 2006L’avancée en âge dans la ville
The arrival of baby-boomers as retired workers will transform a lot the urban landscape. This generation has often become homowner in the suburbs and will age there. Those areas thought for families are not prepared to welcome elderly people
The city centres are loosing population in favor of suburban neighbourhoods. Elderly people with improved houses ask for home care rathen than for specialised homes. So services have to developped for them in the suburban areas.
As the population in Tokyo ages,the city is becoming less dilut
ed, more mobile elferly prefer service centers .
Faced with an ageing society, local administrations are developing policies aimed at reducing dependency and isolation, policies that are confronted with the segmentation of administrative competencies. Innovative groups underdline the importance of local territories for integrating different ages together. Ideas are searched more in the field of quality of life than in the medical one.
In Germany "houses of generation" are created to encourage relationship and mutual assistance between ages groups ; a first look on a recnet governmental program.
The latest census data indicates that the elderly population is growing faster in the cities, whereas the significant proportion of elderly residents, technically referred as the ageing of population,is particularly sensitive in countryside.
Contrary to the cliché that links elderly and old city centres, the geography of Nantes shows a high concentration of 20-30 years old in small rented flats. thre are big disparities in the city related to age and social status.
In the urban context the impression of freedom is linked with the ease of going along anonymously. Reaching old age limits this capacity, except with the help of neighbours, family or social workers. Bringing the city home through visits or medias limits the feeling of the house as a jail.
Babies and elderly are particularly positive figures in day-to-day interactions. Pleasant and vulnerable, elderly help pass the time with free conversation ; eyes open on the world, babies appeal for mimick gestures and free talk. The two figures, at the opposite ends of the ages spectrum give consistency to weak social links
As city dwellers grow in age, city facilities change too. Taking in account the less capacities of the elderly, transport networks respond to a growing demand for better accessibility. Both government and civil society are confronted with the dilemna : to improve public services for all or to adapt them to specific users.
The dominant image of the eldredly in the public is that of anan isolated, dependant, person. In an ageing society the categories are multiplying : the dynamic, recently retired appears beside the handicapped, the activity of the senior contrasts with the passivity of the dependant. The ageing individual assumes a positive role in transmission.
The recently retired, belonging to the papy boom cohort, are flocking to seaside and tourist resorts along the atlantic coast. These towns used to summer affluence are preparing services all year round for them. This will give employment to young local people.
Hossegor, an affluent old summer city on the French atlantic coast, is also attracting young people for surfing. Rich local landlors make pressure on the mayor to preserve the city glamour image against the surfers invasion. The municipality hesitates as economic benefits are brought by surf.
In some Italian cities ageing is directly visible in the urban landscape. The change in the public of the central markets, the opening of third age universities, the creation of walking circuits are the proeminent signs of such a transformation. New relations between generatons can be seen in Fidenza, Rapallo is more devoted to elderdly at the end of their life.
An increasing number of retiring couples choose to divide their time between two homes, often one in the city and one in the country. The two homes have complementary lifestyles and functions. The frequency of travels between them is quite different in relation to the history of the couples.
The viager, anticpating the death of the seller or the diapidation of the family property is not well seen in france. But it can become a good way to reduce the burden of ageing when elderly appear to be very often homowners Reverse mortgage, bank loans acting as viager, may help elderly to both use their property to live and transmit part of it to their families.
Numerous immigrant workers, who came to France during the Glorious thierties are now retiring without retourning in their native countries. Many of them live single. There are important differences between men and women. They are quite tired by hard work and depend on public assistance more than other ageing populations
Maghrebin immigrants in France have settled in between their two countries, the native and the second, and wonder all the time about it. A maghrebin social worker has created a cafe in Paris to welcome them.
Reaching the age of 60 gives in France right to the elderly social allowance, and right to housing. But former homeless may be shocked by such a change. They don’t know how to live alone. Intermediate solutions in new kind of social homes seem necessary.
Student life gives the tempo of towns in which students are an important part of the population. Leisures, activites, transports are organised for them. But their excessive festivities each week before returning home create conflicts with other inhabitants.
Youth workong as mediators in suburban cities show very different behaviours from other people categorized as young. Mediators, recruited in poor neighbourhoods are seen as older brothers byand not as workers by the whole society around and by themselves. It prevents them from working really.